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Xenobiotic metabolism: Quiz


Question 1: The detoxification of endogenous reactive metabolites such as peroxides and reactive ________ often cannot be achieved by the system described above.

Question 2: Examples of these specific detoxification systems are the glyoxalase system, which acts to dispose of the reactive aldehyde methylglyoxal, and the various ________ systems that remove reactive oxygen species.
AntioxidantMetabolismHuman nutritionNutrition

Question 3: The addition of large anionic groups (such as GSH) detoxifies reactive ________ and produces more polar metabolites that cannot diffuse across membranes, and may, therefore, be actively transported.

Question 4: In subsequent phase II reactions, these activated xenobiotic metabolites are conjugated with charged species such as ________ (GSH), sulfate, glycine, or glucuronic acid.
GlutathioneMethionineEthanolAdenosine triphosphate

Question 5: [2] In contrast, the diffusion of ________ compounds across these barriers cannot be controlled, and organisms, therefore, cannot exclude lipid-soluble xenobiotics using membrane barriers.
SuperhydrophobeChemical polarityHydrophobeHydrophile

Question 6: The enzymes of xenobiotic metabolism, particularly the glutathione S-transferases are also important in agriculture, since they may produce resistance to pesticides and ________.
Glyphosate2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acidHerbicide

Question 7: A common example is the processing of glutathione conjugates to ________ (mercapturic acid) conjugates.
AcetylcysteineNaloxonePsychotria ipecacuanhaDextromethorphan

Question 8: Examples of these specific detoxification systems are the glyoxalase system, which removes the reactive ________ methylglyoxal,[3] and the various antioxidant systems that eliminate reactive oxygen species.

Question 9: [7] Here, the γ-glutamate and ________ residues in the glutathione molecule are removed by Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and dipeptidases.

Question 10: All organisms use ________ as hydrophobic permeability barriers to control access to their internal environment.
Cell nucleusCell membraneCell (biology)Vesicle (biology)


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