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Statistical significance: Quiz


Question 1: [citation needed] Armstrong suggests authors should avoid tests of statistical significance; instead, they should report on effect sizes, ________, replications/extensions, and meta-analyses.
Statistical hypothesis testingConfidence intervalStudent's t-distributionNormal distribution

Question 2: In some fields, for example nuclear and particle physics, it is common to express statistical significance in units of "σ" (sigma), the standard deviation of a ________.
Probability distributionGeneralized normal distributionStudent's t-distributionNormal distribution

Question 3: The confidence of a result (and its associated ________) is not dependent on effect size alone.
Student's t-distributionNormal distributionConfidence intervalStatistical hypothesis testing

Question 4: A statistical significance of "nσ" can be converted into a value of α via use of the ________:
Gamma functionNormal distributionError functionGaussian function

Question 5: the probability that a decision to reject the null hypothesis will be made when it is in fact true and should not have been rejected: a "false positive" or ________ and the probability that a decision will be made to accept the null hypothesis when it is false Type II error.
Bayesian inferenceRonald FisherStatistical hypothesis testingType I and type II errors

Question 6: [6][7] See ________ for details.
Bayes factorBayesian probabilityBayesian inferenceBayes' theorem

Question 7: In words, the dependence of confidence is high if the noise is low and/or the sample size is large and/or the ________ (signal) is large.
Effect sizeRandomized controlled trialBlind experimentMultiple comparisons

Question 8: The phrase test of significance was coined by ________.
Ronald FisherFrank YatesGeorge E. P. BoxFactorial experiment

Question 9: The selection of an α-level thus inevitably involves a compromise between significance and power, and consequently between the ________ and the Type II error.
Statistical hypothesis testingNull hypothesisType I and type II errorsBayesian inference

Question 10: According to ________, attempts to educate researchers on how to avoid pitfalls of using statistical significance have had little success.
Al GoreLehigh UniversityCarnegie Mellon UniversityJ. Scott Armstrong

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