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Signal transduction: Quiz


Question 1: cAMP dependent pathway: In humans, cAMP works by activating protein kinase A (PKA, ________) (see picture), and thus, further effects mainly depend on cAMP-dependent protein kinase, which vary based on the type of cell.
Protein kinase AAMP-activated protein kinaseG protein-coupled receptor kinaseProtein kinase C

Question 2: Ligand- or current-regulated ________
Ligand-gated ion channelPotassium channelSodium channelIon channel

Question 3: ________ -- GTPases -- Protein phosphatase
Membrane receptorOlfactory receptorReceptor (biochemistry)G protein-coupled receptor

Question 4: ________ (e.g., melatonin),[10]
HormoneProgesteroneEndocrine systemTestosterone

Question 5: In a similar manner, it is important that integrins at the cell surface of circulating ________ are kept in an inactive state under normal conditions to avoid thrombosis.
Blood plasmaPlateletBloodRed blood cell

Question 6: Interaction between the two cytoplasmic domains of the dimer is thought to stimulate autophosphorylation of ________ within the cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase domains of the RTKs causing their conformational changes.

Question 7: For example, calcium ions bind specifically to the ________ domains of calmodulin, allowing this molecule to bind and activate Calmodulin-dependent kinase.
Alpha helixEF handAlpha sheetBeta sheet

Question 8: Pathways regulated by receptor-________
Tyrosine kinaseBruton's tyrosine kinaseEph receptorPlatelet-derived growth factor receptor

Question 9: This may result in strengthening of the synapse between the pre- and post-synaptic cells by remodeling the ________ involved in the synapse.
Dendritic spineAstrocyteGlial cellNeuron

Question 10: [35] For example, a rhodopsin molecule in the plasma membrane of a retina cell in the ________ that was activated by a photon can activate up to 2000 effector molecules (in this case, transducin) per second.
Sensory systemNervous systemBrainEye


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