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Piwi-interacting RNA: Quiz

  

Question 1: Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) is the largest class of small ________ molecules that is expressed in animal cells[1][2].
DNASmall interfering RNARNANon-coding RNA

Question 2: A significant number of piRNAs identified in ________ and D.melanogaster contain adenine at their tenth position[3], and this has been interpreted as possible evidence of a conserved biosynthetic mechanism across species[9].
ZebrafishEnsemblModel organismHomoloGene

Question 3: Due to their small size, expression and amplification of small RNAs can be challenging, so specialised ________-based methods have been developed in response to this difficulty[20][21].
Polymerase chain reactionReal-time polymerase chain reactionDNAReverse transcription polymerase chain reaction

Question 4: piRNAs appear to have an impact on particular methyltransferases that perform the ________ which are required to recognise and silence transposons[17], but this relationship is not well understood.
AcetylationPosttranslational modificationAmino acidMethylation

Question 5: No mechanism for the control of ________ propagation has yet been established[12].
Small nucleolar RNAAntisense RNAPiwi-interacting RNASmall interfering RNA

Question 6: A primary processing pathway is suggested to be the only pathway used to produce ________ piRNAs; in this mechanism, piRNA precurors are transcribed resulting in piRNAs with a tendency to target 5’ uridines[17][18].
MeiosisChromosomeMitosisCell cycle

Question 7: piRNAs show a significant strand bias, that is, they are derived from one strand of ________ only[1], and this may indicate that they are the product of long single stranded precursor molecules[2].
GeneticsDNAProteinGene

Question 8: These piRNA complexes have been linked to transcriptional gene silencing of ________ and other genetic elements in germ line cells, particularly those in spermatogenesis.
Trinucleotide repeat disorderAlu sequenceRetrotransposonMicrosatellite

Question 9: In mammals it appears that the activity of piRNAs in transposon silencing is most important during the development of the embryo[17], and in both ________ and humans, piRNAs are necessary for spermatogenesis[19].
Drosophila melanogasterCaenorhabditis elegansModel organismArabidopsis thaliana

Question 10: One or both of these mechanisms may be acting in different species; ________, for instance, does have piRNAs, but does not appear to use the ping pong mechanism at all[10].
Model organismDrosophila melanogasterArabidopsis thalianaCaenorhabditis elegans
















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