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Penetrance: Quiz

  

Question 1: Most biological traits (such as height or intelligence in humans) are multifactorial, influenced by many genes as well as environmental conditions and ________ expression.
Molecular biologyPost-transcriptional regulationTranscriptional regulationEpigenetics

Question 2: For example, if a mutation in the gene responsible for a particular ________ disorder has 95% penetrance, then 95% of those with the mutation will develop the disease, while 5% will not.
AlleleChromosomeDominance (genetics)Genetics

Question 3: For hereditary ________, a disease caused by excess intestinal iron absorption, the degree of penetrance has been a subject of controversy for many years and illustrates the challenges facing investigators seeking a quantitative measure of penetrance.
SpherocytosisElevated alkaline phosphataseIron overloadHFE hereditary hemochromatosis

Question 4: Only a statistical measure of association is possible with such ________ traits.
GeneticsQuantitative trait locusGeneDNA

Question 5: Penetrance is a term used in genetics to describe the proportion of individuals carrying a particular variation of a ________ (allele or genotype) that also express an associated trait (phenotype).
EvolutionDNAGeneRNA

Question 6: Mendelian genetic concepts such as recessiveness, dominance, and ________ are fairly simple additions to this principle.
ChromosomeDNADominance (genetics)Allele

Question 7: Penetrance at a given allele may be ________, modified by the presence or absence of polymorphic alleles at other gene loci.
DNAQuantitative trait locusHeredityGenetics

Question 8: For many hereditary diseases, the onset of symptoms is age related, and is affected by environmental codeterminants such as nutrition and smoking, as well as genetic cofactors and ________ regulation of expression:
Molecular biologyEpigeneticsPost-transcriptional regulationTranscriptional regulation

Question 9: In ________, the penetrance of a disease causing mutation is the proportion of individuals with the mutation who exhibit clinical symptoms.
Medical geneticsFull genome sequencingMedicinePsychiatry
















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