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Paraphyly: Quiz


Question 1: Invertebrates are defined as all animals other than ________, although vertebrates are derived from this larger group.

Question 2: The former Prokaryotes became the Bacteria and the ________, while the third domain remained the Eukaryotes.

Question 3: On the other hand, polyphyletic and paraphyletic groups are always defined in terms of clades, for example "reptiles are the Sauropsid clade, minus the ________ clade".
BirdArchaeopteryxEnantiornithesModern birds

Question 4: Or "Warm-blooded animals are the ________ clade plus the Mammals clade".
Modern birdsEnantiornithesBirdArchaeopteryx

Question 5: A paraphyletic group is a monophyletic group from which one or more of the ________ is excluded to form a separate group (as in the paradigmatic example of reptiles and birds, shown in the picture).
Computational phylogeneticsPhylogeneticsCladeGhost lineage

Question 6: Monophyletic groups (that is, ________) are considered by these schools of thought to be the most important grouping of organisms, for the following reasons:
PhylogeneticsComputational phylogeneticsGhost lineageClade

Question 7: Osteichthyes, bony fish, are paraphyletic because they include ________ (ray-finned fish) and Sarcopterygii (lungfish, etc).

Question 8: However, ________ are descendants of the nearest common ancestor of Actinopterygii and Sarcopterygii, and tetrapods are not in Osteichthyes, hence Osteichthyes is paraphyletic.

Question 9: Many of the older classifications contain paraphyletic groups, especially the traditional 2–6 kingdom systems and the classic division of the ________.

Question 10: In the flowering plants, ________, in the traditional sense, because they exclude Monocotyledons.
Dahlgren systemThorne system (1992)DicotyledonCronquist system


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