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Observer-expectancy effect: Quiz


Question 1: The observer-expectancy effect (also called the experimenter-expectancy effect, observer effect, or experimenter effect) is a form of reactivity, in which a researcher's ________ causes them to unconsciously influence the participants of an experiment.
Cognitive biasAvailability heuristicSocial psychology (psychology)Cognitive dissonance

Question 2: An example of the observer-expectancy effect is demonstrated in music ________, in which hidden verbal messages are said to be audible when a recording is played backwards.
Subliminal stimuliCryptographyBackmaskingHidden message

Question 3: It is a significant threat to a study's ________, and is therefore typically controlled using a double-blind experimental design.
ConfoundingInternal validityEcological validityValidity (statistics)

Question 4: Other prominent examples include facilitated communication, dowsing, and ________.
Applied kinesiologyChiropractic controversy and criticismChiropracticChiropractic education

Question 5: ________ - a horse who seemed to be performing arithmetic and other amazing skills, but in reality took cues transmitted unconsciously by his trainer and observers.
Clever HansIrene PepperbergAnimal cognitionComparative psychology

Question 6: ________ - an inert medicine or preparation which works because the patient thinks it will
AntidepressantPlaceboPharmaceutical drugNocebo


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