Question 1: This scale was based on the ground motion measured by a particular type of ________ at a distance of 100 kilometres (62 mi) from the earthquake.
Question 2: As with earthquakes, during an underground explosion of a nuclear weapon, only a small fraction of the total amount of energy transformed ends up being radiated as ________.
Question 4: The moment magnitude is a M w ________ defined by
Question 5: As with the Richter scale, an increase of 1 step on this ________ corresponds to a 10 1.5 ≈ 31.6 times increase in the amount of energy released, and an increase of 2 steps corresponds to a 10 3 = 1000 times increase in energy.
Question 6: The MMS is now the scale used to estimate magnitudes for all modern large earthquakes by the ________.
Question 7: The scale was developed in the 1970s to succeed the 1930s-era [2 ] ________ ( M L).
Question 8: The moment magnitude ( ) scale was introduced in 1979 by M w ________ seismologists Thomas C. Hanks and Hiroo Kanamori to address these shortcomings while maintaining consistency.
Question 9: The moment magnitude scale (abbreviated as MMS; denoted as ) is used by M w seismologists to measure the size of ________ in terms of the energy released.
Question 10: For real [7 ] ________, the actual seismic efficiency achieved varies significantly and depends on the site and design parameters of the test.