Milankovitch cycles: Quiz

Question 1: From the perspective of the perturbation theory used in celestial mechanics to compute the evolution of the orbit, the semi-major axis is an ________.
Quantum mechanicsAdiabatic invariantEquipartition theoremOld quantum theory

Question 2: This is known as solar forcing (an example of ________).

Question 3: The relative increase in solar irradiation at closest approach to the Sun (perihelion) compared to the irradiation at the furthest distance (________) is slightly larger that 4 times the eccentricity.
Orbital periodOrbitOrbital eccentricityApsis

Question 4: What does the following picture show?

 Planets orbiting the Sun follow elliptical (oval) orbits that rotate gradually over time (apsidal precession). The eccentricity of this ellipse is exaggerated for visualization. Most orbits in the Solar System have a much smaller eccentricity, making them nearly circular. Variations of Cyle Times, curves determined from ocean sediments Past and future Milankovitch cycles. VSOP allows prediction of past and future orbital parameters with great accuracy. ε is obliquity (axial tilt). e is eccentricity. ϖ is longitude of perihelion. esin(ϖ) is the precession index, which together with obliquity, controls the seasonal cycle of insolation. $\overline{Q}^{\mathrm{day}}$ is the calculated daily-averaged insolation at the top of the atmosphere, on the day of the summer solstice at 65 N latitude. Benthic forams and Vostok ice core show two distinct proxies for past global sealevel and temperature, from ocean sediment and Antarctic ice respectively. Vertical gray line is current conditions, at 2 ky A.D. Past and future of daily average insolation at top of the atmosphere on the day of the summer solstice, at 65 N latitude. The green curve is with eccentricity e hypothetically set to 0. The red curve uses the actual (predicted) value of e. Blue dot is current conditions, at 2 ky A.D.

Question 5: Milankovitch studied changes in the orbital eccentricity, ________, and precession of Earth's movements.
SunMarsAxial tiltJupiter

Question 6:
This article shows the influence of Milankovitch cyles on climate variation during the late Oligocene and early ________, around 20-25 million years ago.
Geologic time scaleMioceneLanghianPliocene

Question 7: What does the following picture show?

 The nature of sediments can vary in a cyclic fashion, and these cycles can be displayed in the sedimentary record. Here, cycles can be observed in the colouration and resistance of different strata Variations of Cyle Times, curves determined from ocean sediments Past and future Milankovitch cycles. VSOP allows prediction of past and future orbital parameters with great accuracy. ε is obliquity (axial tilt). e is eccentricity. ϖ is longitude of perihelion. esin(ϖ) is the precession index, which together with obliquity, controls the seasonal cycle of insolation. $\overline{Q}^{\mathrm{day}}$ is the calculated daily-averaged insolation at the top of the atmosphere, on the day of the summer solstice at 65 N latitude. Benthic forams and Vostok ice core show two distinct proxies for past global sealevel and temperature, from ocean sediment and Antarctic ice respectively. Vertical gray line is current conditions, at 2 ky A.D. Effects of apsidal precession on the seasons

Question 8: The invariable plane, the plane that represents the angular momentum of the solar system, is approximately the orbital plane of ________.
Io (moon)JupiterCallisto (moon)Ganymede (moon)

Question 9: What does the following picture show?

 Past and future Milankovitch cycles. VSOP allows prediction of past and future orbital parameters with great accuracy. ε is obliquity (axial tilt). e is eccentricity. ϖ is longitude of perihelion. esin(ϖ) is the precession index, which together with obliquity, controls the seasonal cycle of insolation. $\overline{Q}^{\mathrm{day}}$ is the calculated daily-averaged insolation at the top of the atmosphere, on the day of the summer solstice at 65 N latitude. Benthic forams and Vostok ice core show two distinct proxies for past global sealevel and temperature, from ocean sediment and Antarctic ice respectively. Vertical gray line is current conditions, at 2 ky A.D. Precessional movement. 22.1-24.5° range of Earth's obliquity. Effects of apsidal precession on the seasons

Question 10: The Earth's axis completes one full cycle of ________ approximately every 26,000 years.
General relativityPrecessionForceAxial precession (astronomy)