Magma: Quiz

Question 1: Within the solid earth, the temperature of a rock is controlled by the ________ and the radioactive decay within the rock.
Enhanced geothermal systemGeothermal powerGeothermal gradientGeothermal electricity

Question 2: Silicon atoms are in tetrahedral coordination with oxygen, as in almost all ________, but in melts atomic order is preserved only over short distances.
GarnetChlorite groupSilicate mineralsMuscovite

Question 3: While the study of magma has historically relied on observing magma in the form of lava outflows, magma has been encountered ________ three times during drilling projects—twice in Iceland, and once in Hawaii.
BiologyIn situPlantEarth science

Question 4: At high degrees of partial melting of the mantle, ________ and picrite are produced.
Igneous rockKomatiiteBasaltDiabase

Question 5: Magma is capable of intrusion into adjacent rocks, extrusion onto the surface as ________, and explosive ejection as tephra to form pyroclastic rock.
VolcanoIgneous rockBasaltLava

Question 6: Typically, primitive melts of this composition form lamprophyre, lamproite, kimberlite and sometimes nepheline-bearing mafic rocks such as alkali ________ and essexite gabbros or even carbonatite.
BasaltLavaFlood basaltIgneous rock

Question 7: By definition, all ________ is formed from magma.
FelsicIgneous rockGraniteBasalt

Question 8: Silicate melts are composed mainly of silicon, oxygen, ________, alkalis (sodium, potassium, calcium), magnesium and iron.

Question 9: When rocks melt they do so incrementally and gradually; most rocks are made of several minerals, all of which have different melting points, and the ________ that control melting are often complex.
GasPhase transitionPhase diagramSolid

Question 10: Temperatures of most magmas are in the range 700 °C to 1300 °C (or 1300 °F to 2400 °F), but very rare ________ melts may be as cool as 600 °C, and komatiite melts may have been as hot as 1600 °C.

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