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Question 1: By contrast, a ________ or loan translation is a related concept, whereby it is the meaning or idiom that is borrowed rather than the lexical item itself.
CalqueGerman languageChinese languageLoanword

Question 2: For example, words borrowed from Hindi include: syce/sais, dinghy, chutney, pundit, wallah, pajama/pyjamas, ________ and jodhpur.
United StatesTorontoAtlantaBungalow

Question 3: While calquing includes (________) translation, it does not consist of phonetic matching (i.e.
LinguisticsFormal semanticsPragmaticsSemantics

Question 4: During more than 600 years of the ________, the literary and administrative language of the empire was a mixture of Turkish, Persian, and Arabic which is called Ottoman Turkish, considerably differing from the everyday spoken Turkish of the time.
TurkeyTurkish peopleOttoman EmpireIstanbul

Question 5: ); {{nihongo|"________" → "car navigation system" → "car navi" → |カーナビ|kānabi}).
AutomobileGlobal Positioning SystemAutomotive navigation systemAirbag

Question 6: Another popular term is Spanglish, the English influence on the Spanish language, and ________, the English influence on the Dutch language.
FranglaisAmerican EnglishEnglish languageDunglish

Question 7: Other examples include: trek, aardvark, laager, wildebeest and veld from ________; orangutan, shirang, amok from (Malay); and sjambok via Afrikaans from Malay.
English languageZulu languageAfrikaansDutch language

Question 8: the invasion of England by the Vikings and the ________, and continuing French influence;
NormansNormandyCnut the GreatByzantine Empire

Question 9: The Hawaiian spelling indicates the two ________ in the word, but the English pronunciation, /ˈɑː.ɑː/ or /ˈɑːʔɑː/, contains at most one.
Glottal stopVelar nasalPalatal approximantVoiceless glottal fricative

Question 10: Direct loans, calques (expressions translated word-by-word), or even grammatical constructions and orthographical conventions from English are called ________.
LoanwordAnglicismFranglaisEnglish language
















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