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Language family: Quiz

  
  

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Question 1: However, it is possible to recover many features of a proto-language by applying the comparative method—a reconstructive procedure worked out by 19th century linguist ________.
August SchleicherBiologyErnst HaeckelThuringia

Question 2: Those that have no known relatives (or for which family relationships are only tentatively proposed) are called ________, which can be thought of as minimal language families.
Language isolateMayan languagesUto-Aztecan languagesQuechuan languages

Question 3: A language family is a group of ________ related by descent from a common ancestor, called the proto-language of that family.
Gottfried LeibnizAristotleLanguageSemantics

Question 4: It has been asserted, for example, that many of the more striking features shared by ________ (Latin, Oscan, Umbrian, etc.) might well be "areal features".
Italic languagesGermanic peoplesArmenian languageRomance languages

Question 5: These features are believed to be innovations that took place in ________, a descendant of Proto-Indo-European that was the source of all Germanic languages.
Gothic languageProto-GermanicOld High GermanOld English

Question 6: By contrast, so far as is known, the ________ is an absolute isolate: it has not been shown to be related to any other language despite numerous attempts, though it has been influenced by neighboring Romance languages.
Catalan languageBasque languageErromintxelaSpanish language

Question 7: Membership of languages in the same language family is established by ________.
EtymologyComparative linguisticsInternal reconstructionHistorical linguistics

Question 8: For example, what makes ________ "Germanic" is that they share vocabulary and grammatical features which are not believed to have been present in Proto-Indo-European.
North Germanic languagesOld NorseGermanic languagesWest Germanic languages

Question 9: (In this way, the term family is analogous to the biological term ________.) Some taxonomists restrict the term family to a certain level, but there is little consensus in how to do so.
CladeGhost lineagePhylogeneticsComputational phylogenetics

Question 10: The concept of language families is based on the historical observation that languages develop ________, which over time may diverge into distinct languages.
German languageDialect continuumDialectEnglish language
















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