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Holoprosencephaly: Quiz


Question 1: Symptoms of holoprosencephaly range from mild (no facial/organ defects, ________, or only a single central incisor) to moderate (cleft lip or cleft palate) to severe (synophthalmia proboscis or cyclopia).
HallucinationAmnesiaAnosmiaVertigo (medical)

Question 2: ________, which guide placement of embryonic structures, fail to activate along the midline of the head, allowing structures that are normally paired on the left and right to merge.
Homeodomain foldHox geneHomeoboxTranscription factor

Question 3: ________ is based upon the degree in which the brain is affected.
Disability rights movementDisabilityMental disorderBlindness

Question 4: Although many children with holoprosencephaly have normal ________, specific chromosomal abnormalities have been identified in some patients (trisomy of chromosome 13, also known as Patau syndrome).
KaryotypeChromosomeChromosomal translocationAutosome

Question 5: Increases in expression of such ________ as Pax-2, as well as inhibition of Pax-6, from the notochord have been implicated in normal differentiation of cephalic midline structures.

Question 6: According to the ________ (NINDS), "in most cases of holoprosencephaly, the malformations are so severe that babies die before birth.
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and StrokeNational Institute of Mental HealthNational Institutes of HealthNational Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

Question 7: [6] There is also a correlation between alcohol consumption and HPE, along with ________, the toxins in cigarettes and toxins in cigarette smoke when used during pregnancy).
Nicotinic agonistLobelinePhencyclidineNicotine

Question 8: Normally, the forebrain is formed and the face begins to develop in the fifth and sixth weeks of ________.
Reproductive medicinePregnancySexual intercoursePrenatal development

Question 9: Numerous possible risk factors have been identified, including ________, transplacental infections (the "TORCH complex"), first trimester bleeding, and a history of miscarriage.
Postmature birthPreterm birthPostpartum thyroiditisGestational diabetes

Question 10: The most severe of the facial defects (or anomalies) is cyclopia, an abnormality characterized by the development of a single ________, located in the area normally occupied by the root of the nose, and a missing nose or a nose in the form of a proboscis (a tubular appendage) located above the eye.
BrainEyeSensory systemNervous system

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