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Hepatic encephalopathy: Quiz

  

Question 1: A preparation of L-ornithine and L-aspartate (LOLA) is used to increase the generation of urea through the urea cycle, a metabolic pathway that removes ammonia by turning it into the neutral substance ________.
OxygenUreaCysteineNitrogen

Question 2: Blood tests (________ levels) may assist in the diagnosis.
NitrogenAmmoniaChlorineHydrogen

Question 3: Lactulose may also be given by ________, especially if encephalopathy is severe.
SuppositoryIntraperitoneal injectionEnemaDosage form

Question 4: The most important waste product is ________ (NH3).
ChlorineAmmoniaNitrogenHydrogen

Question 5: [1][2] Other waste products implicated in hepatic encephalopathy include ________ (substances containing a thiol group), short-chain fatty acids and phenol.
AldehydeThiolAlkaneAlcohol

Question 6: Hepatic encephalopathy (sometimes portosystemic encephalopathy) is the occurrence of confusion, ________ and coma as a result of liver failure.
SomnolenceAltered level of consciousnessICD-10 Chapter XVIII: Symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findingsPersistent vegetative state

Question 7: [2] Other neuroimaging modalities, such as ________ (MRI), are not currently regarded as useful, although they may show abnormalities.
Positron emission tomographyMedical imagingFunctional magnetic resonance imagingMagnetic resonance imaging

Question 8: This small molecule crosses the blood-brain barrier and is absorbed and metabolised by the ________, a population of cells in the brain that constitutes 30% of the cerebral cortex.
AstrocyteMicrogliaGlial cellOligodendrocyte

Question 9: Celsus and ________ (first and third century respectively) both recognised the condition.
GalenIbn ZuhrHippocratesAvicenna

Question 10: It is caused by accumulation in the bloodstream of toxic substances that are normally removed by the ________.
Immune systemPancreasLiverEndocrine system
















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