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Heliocentrism: Quiz


Question 1: In modern calculations, the origin and orientation of a coordinate system often are selected for practical reasons, and in such systems the origin in the ________ of the Earth, of the Earth-Moon system, of the Sun, of the Sun and the major planets, or of the entire solar system can be selected.
Vehicle dynamicsOversteerCar handlingCenter of mass

Question 2: ________ (b.
Qotb al-Din ShiraziAstronomy in medieval IslamAlhazenAvicenna

Question 3: One of the few pieces of information we have about the reception of Aristarchus's heliocentric system comes from a passage in ________'s dialogue, Concerning the Face which Appears in the Orb of the Moon.
Alexander the GreatPlatoPlutarchDemosthenes

Question 4: Nonetheless, in 1533, Johann Albrecht Widmannstetter delivered in ________ a series of lectures outlining Copernicus' theory.

Question 5: In a Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina, Galileo defended heliocentrism, and claimed it was not contrary to Scriptures (see ________).
Galileo GalileiNicolaus CopernicusCatholic Church and scienceGalileo affair

Question 6: In the following century, this model was elaborated and expanded by Johannes Kepler and supporting observations made using a telescope were presented by ________.
Isaac NewtonScientific revolutionGalileo GalileiScientific method

Question 7: What does the following picture show?

  Nicolaus Copernicus, 16th century, described the first computational system explicitly tied to a heliocentric model
  Aristarchus's 3rd century BC calculations on the relative sizes of the Earth, Sun and Moon, from a 10th century AD Greek copy
  11th-century Persian scientist Biruni, suggested that if the Earth rotated on its axis this would be consistent with astronomical theory. He discussed heliocentrism but considered it was a philosophical problem.
  Heliocentrism (lower panel) in comparison to the geocentric model (upper panel)

Question 8: The stars are in fact much farther away than the distance that was generally assumed in ancient times, which is why stellar parallax is only detectable with ________.
AstronomyReflecting telescopeOptical telescopeTelescope

Question 9: The reasons for this placement were philosophic, based on the ________, rather than scientific; fire was more precious than earth in the opinion of the Pythagoreans, and for this reason the fire should be central.
Air (classical element)Earth (classical element)Classical elementMatter

Question 10: ________ says that Aristarchus made the stars' distance larger, suggesting that he was answering the natural objection that heliocentrism requires stellar parallactic oscillations.

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