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Hardpan: Quiz

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Question 1: The use of soil amendments can also be employed to alter the ________ and promote the dissolution of the hard pan.
EarthwormAggregationSoil structurePorosity

Question 2: This is a common cause of ________ failure due to the prevention of proper drainage in field.
Sewage treatmentSeptic tankMound systemWastewater

Question 3: ________ soils are most often affected due to the propensity of certain mineral salts, most notably iron and calcium, to form hard complexes with soil particles under acid conditions.
OxygenAcid dissociation constantAcidAcid–base reaction

Question 4: The broadfork is a manual ________ specifically designed for this task; a digging fork or a spade might also be used.
ToolDrillPliersAxe

Question 5: The ________ does a similar job with the help of a tractor.
Garden forkPloughPliersBillhook

Question 6: Others are man-made, such as hardpan formed by compaction from repeated plowing particularly with ________ and /or heavy traffic and pollution from man made sources.
Garden forkPliersPloughBillhook

Question 7: [1] There are different types of hardpan, all sharing the general characteristic of being a distinct soil layer that is largely impervious to ________.
OxygenWater resourcesEarthWater

Question 8: These deposits can range from dissolved silica to matrices formed from iron oxides and ________.
Calcium oxideCalcium hydroxideCalcium silicateCalcium carbonate

Question 9: More difficult hardpans may be further improved through the action of both adjusting the soil pH with lime if the soil is acidic, and with the addition of ________.
United StatesGypsumHaliteAnhydrite

Question 10: Common salts such as ________ ions contained in wastewater can fulfil this role and lead to a localized hardpan in some soil types.
PotassiumSodiumCalciumAluminium







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