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Gait: Quiz

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Question 1: Diagonal sequence walks and runs (aka trots) are most frequently used by sprawling tetrapods such as salamanders and ________, due to the lateral oscillations of their bodies during movement.
SnakeReptileSquamataLizard

Question 2: The term 'gait' has even been applied to flying and swimming organisms who produce distinct patterns of wake ________.
Fluid dynamicsVortexLift (force)Vorticity

Question 3: This value will usually be the same for forelimbs and hindlimbs unless the animal is moving with a specially-trained gait or is ________ or decelerating.
SpeedAccelerationForceKinematics

Question 4: In running, the kinetic and potential energy fluctuate in-phase, and the energy change is passed on to muscles, ________, tendons and ligaments acting as springs (thus it is describes as the spring-mass model).
Head and neck anatomyBoneHuman skeletonHuman skull

Question 5: ________ are a unique case, and most bipeds will display only three gaits - walking, running, and hopping - during natural locomotion.
Animal locomotionTerrestrial locomotionBipedalismQuadrupedalism

Question 6: Walking gaits are all characterized by a 'vaulting' movement of the body over the legs, frequently described as in inverted pendulum (displaying fluctuations in kinetic and ________ which are perfectly out of phase).
Potential energyForceAtomElectric potential

Question 7: Gaits are typically classified according to ________ patterns, but recent studies often prefer definitions based on mechanics.
Science fictionBussard ramjetFootfallSleeper ship

Question 8: While gaits can be classified by ________, new work involving whole-body kinematics and force-plate records has given rise to an alternative classification scheme, based on the mechanics of the movement.
Sleeper shipFootfallBussard ramjetScience fiction

Question 9: Thus, they cannot move and breathe at the same time, a situation called Carrier's constraint, though some, such as ________, can circumvent this restriction via buccal pumping.
Water monitorVaranus indicusHelodermaMonitor lizard

Question 10: Lateral sequence gaits during walking and running are most common in mammals, but ________ mammals such as monkeys, some possums, and kinkajous use diagonal sequence walks for enhanced stability.
ColugoArboreal locomotionBrachiationPrimate







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