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Excitotoxicity: Quiz

  
  

Question 1: Brain trauma or stroke can cause ischemia, in which ________ flow is reduced to inadequate levels.
Red blood cellBloodPlateletBlood plasma

Question 2: Ca2+ influx into cells activates a number of enzymes, including phospholipases, endonucleases, and proteases such as ________.
CalpainCaspaseCaspase 2The Proteolysis Map

Question 3: Hayashi, a Japanese scientist who noted that direct application of glutamate to the CNS caused ________ activity, though this report went unnoticed for several years.
ConvulsionICD-10 Chapter XVIII: Symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findingsSeizureSymptom

Question 4: Newhouse in 1957, when the feeding of ________ to newborn mice destroyed the neurons in the inner layers of the retina.
Glutamic acidMonosodium glutamateStarchGlutamic acid (flavor)

Question 5: [9] During normal conditions, glutamate ________ can be increased up to 1mM in the synaptic cleft, which is rapidly decreased in the lapse of milliseconds.
SolventSolubilityConcentrationTotal dissolved solids

Question 6: This occurs when receptors for the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate (glutamate receptors) such as the NMDA receptor and ________ are overactivated.
Ion channelAMPA receptorNicotinic acetylcholine receptorKainate receptor

Question 7: These enzymes go on to damage cell structures such as components of the ________, membrane, and DNA.
MicrotubuleProteinCytoskeletonFtsZ

Question 8: [3][4] Other common conditions that cause excessive glutamate concentrations around neurons are ________[5] and status epilepticus.
EpinephrineDiabetes mellitusICD-10 Chapter IV: Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseasesHypoglycemia

Question 9: [7] Later, in 1969, John Olney discovered the phenomenon was not restricted to the retina, but occurred throughout the ________, and coined the term excitotoxicity.
BrainDigestionNervous systemSensory system

Question 10: When the glutamate concentration around the synaptic cleft cannot be decreased or reaches higher levels, the neuron kills itself by a process called ________.
Signal transductionTranscription factorApoptosis-inducing factorApoptosis
















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