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Evolutionary grade: Quiz


Question 1: Where information about phylogenetic relationships is available, organisms are preferentially grouped into ________.
CladePhylogeneticsGhost lineageComputational phylogenetics

Question 2: The term was coined by British biologist ________, to contrast with clade, a strictly phylogenetic unit.
Modern evolutionary synthesisHuxley familyJ. B. S. HaldaneJulian Huxley

Question 3: ________ in the wider sense (including the extinct Labyrinthodonts) represent a grade, in that they are also the ancestor of the amniotes.

Question 4: In fact, the three traditional classes of fish (________, Chondrichthyes and Osteichthyes) all represent evolutionary grades.

Question 5: In ________ evolutionary grades (or any other form of paraphyly) are not accepted.
Phylogenetic nomenclatureCladeBiological classificationCladistics

Question 6: ________ represent a grade, inasmuch as they have given rise to the land vertebrates.
FishForage fishPelagic fishFish anatomy

Question 7: ________ have been known to be the ancestor of birds since the 1860'ies.

Question 8: ________ and liverworts were long thought to represent a clade, but molecular evidence shows the two are in fact separate lineage, the mosses being ancestral to vascular plants.
MossFlowering plantGymnospermFern

Question 9: While paraphyletic taxa are sought eliminated in ________, such grades are sometimes kept as formal or informal groups on basis of their usefulness for the field researcher.
Biological classificationMilitary taxonomyTaxonomyFolk taxonomy

Question 10: ________ as a unit represent an evolutionary grade, defines by their retention of limbs relative to snakes and Amphisbaenans.


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