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Evolutionary arms race: Quiz


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  • the history of the carom billiards disciplines, balkline and straight rail (balkline table pictured), features a veritable billiards evolutionary arms race, in which each new rule implemented was interdicted by a shot developed to counter it?

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Question 1: Thierry Lodé[2] emphasized the role of such antagonist interactions in evolution leading to ________ and antagonist coevolution.
Allopatric speciationSympatric speciationCharacter displacementSpeciation

Question 2: [1] The co-evolving gene sets may be in different species, as in an evolutionary arms race between a predator species and its prey (Vermeij, 1987), or a ________ and its host.
ToxoplasmosisDirofilaria immitisParasitismCat

Question 3: In Australia, many invasive species, such as ________ and rabbits, have spread rapidly due to a lack of competition or natural predators and a lack of adaptations to cane toads on the part of its prey.
BarbadosCane toadFrogMontserrat

Question 4: This is the case with certain flowers' ultra-violet color patterns, whose function is to guide ________ to the center of the flower and promote pollination.
BeeCattleEsoxHoney bee

Question 5: This is a common problem in isolated ecosystems such as ________ or the Hawaiian Islands.
United KingdomCanadaAustraliaBarbados

Question 6: Alternatively, the arms race may be between members of the same species, as in the manipulation/sales resistance model of communication (Dawkins & Krebs, 1979) or as in runaway evolution or ________ effects.
GeneRed QueenSexual selectionAdaptation

Question 7: The Escalation hypothesis put forward by Geerat Vermeij speaks of more general conflicts and was originally based on his work with marine ________ fossils.

Question 8: When a species has not been subject to an arms race previously, it may be at a severe disadvantage and face ________ well before it could ever hope to adapt to a new predator, competitor, etc.
ExtinctionEvolutionHolocene extinctionConservation biology

Question 9: Introduced species are a major reason why some indigenous species become endangered or even extinct, as was the case with the ________.
RaphinaeBirdRodrigues SolitaireDodo

Question 10: In evolutionary biology, an evolutionary arms race is an evolutionary struggle between competing sets of co-evolving ________ that develop adaptations and counter-adaptations against each other, resembling an arms race, which are also examples of positive feedback.


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