Question 5: In ________, bending (also known as flexure) characterizes the behavior of a slender structural element subjected to an external load applied perpendicularly to an longitudinal axis of the element.

Question 7: where x,y are the coordinates of a point on the cross section at which the stress is to be determined, M_{x} and M_{y} are the bending moments about the x and y ________ axes, I_{x} and I_{y} are the second moments of area (distinct from moments of inertia) about the x and y axes, and I_{xy} is the product of moments of area.

Question 9: Wide-flange beams (I-Beams) and ________girders effectively address this inefficiency as they minimize the amount of material in this under-stressed region.