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Atrial septal defect: Quiz

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Question 1: They may be noted on routine testing to have an abnormal chest x-ray or an abnormal [[ECG]] and may have ________.
Heart failureAtrial fibrillationHypertrophic cardiomyopathyMyocardial infarction

Question 2: Some recent research has suggested that a proportion of cases of ________ may be caused by patent foramen ovale.
Cluster headacheMigraineHeadacheTension headache

Question 3: And, the ________ in migraine typically averages around 40%.
NoceboAntidepressantPharmaceutical drugPlacebo

Question 4: In this case, elevation of pressure in the pulmonary circulatory system (ie: pulmonary hypertension due to various causes, or transiently during a ________) can cause the foramen ovale to remain open.
PneumoniaPleurisyCoughICD-10 Chapter XVIII: Symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings

Question 5: Adults with an uncorrected ASD will present with symptoms of dyspnea on exertion (shortness of breath with minimal exercise), congestive heart failure, or ________ (stroke).
Cerebral aneurysmSubarachnoid hemorrhageCerebral venous sinus thrombosisStroke

Question 6: This is known as a ________ (PFO).
Mitral regurgitationAortic insufficiencyAtrial septal defectAortic valve stenosis

Question 7: Ten to twenty percent of individuals with ostium secundum ASDs also have ________.
Heart failureMyocardial infarctionHypertrophic cardiomyopathyMitral valve prolapse

Question 8: Clinically it is linked to ________, paradoxical embolism and migraine.
Oxygen toxicityAir embolismBarotraumaDecompression sickness

Question 9: [13][14] The only way to release the excess inert gases from the body is to pass the blood carrying the inert gases through the ________ to be exhaled.
Respiratory systemDigestionLungImmune system

Question 10: Symptoms are typically decreased exercise tolerance, easy fatigueability, ________, and syncope.
BradycardiaTachycardiaCardiogenic shockPalpitation







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