Question 5: As a result of this
mutually-beneficial relationship, alder improves the fertility of
where it grows, and as a pioneer species, it helps provide
additional nitrogen for the successional species which
Question 8: The flowers are catkins with elongate male catkins on the same
plant as shorter female catkins, often before leaves appear; they
are mainly wind-pollinated, but also visited by ________ to a small extent.