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Action potential: Quiz

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Question 1: The flow of currents within an axon can be described quantitatively by ________[79] and its elaborations, such as the compartmental model.
Cable theoryDendriteElectrical resistanceElectrostatics

Question 2: [42] In some cases, the regulation of frequency can be more complex, leading to patterns of action potentials, such as ________.
BurstingLong-term potentiationNeural oscillationMemory

Question 3: The most important and accurate of these models is the Hodgkin–Huxley model, which describes the action potential by a coupled set of four ________ (ODEs).
DerivativeLinear differential equationOrdinary differential equationInitial value problem

Question 4: For illustration, in the human ________, hair cells convert the incoming sound into the opening and closing of mechanically gated ion channels, which may cause neurotransmitter molecules to be released.
BreastEarPenisSensory system

Question 5: The first problem was solved by studying the giant axons found in the neurons of the ________ genus Loligo.
Sea urchinSquidOctopusFlatfish

Question 6: However, the main excitable cell is the ________, which also has the simplest mechanism for the action potential.
Photoreceptor cellNeuronNervous systemGlial cell

Question 7: Their joint efforts can be thwarted, however, by the counter-acting ________.
Long-term potentiationExcitatory postsynaptic potentialInhibitory postsynaptic potentialLong-term depression

Question 8: What does the following picture show?

  The giant axons of the European squid (Loligo vulgaris) were crucial for scientists to understand the action potential.
  Depiction of the open potassium channel, with the potassium ion shown in purple in the middle, and hydrogen atoms omitted. When the channel is closed, the passage is blocked.
  Despite the small differences in their radii,[16] ions rarely go through the "wrong" channel. For example, sodium or calcium ions rarely pass through a potassium channel.
  Comparison of the conduction velocities of myelinated and unmyelinated axons in the cat.[73] The conduction velocity v of myelinated neurons varies roughly linearly with axon diameter d (that is, vd),[68] whereas the speed of unmyelinated neurons varies roughly as the square root (v ∝√ d).[74] The red and blue curves are fits of experimental data, whereas the dotted lines are their theoretical extrapolations.

Question 9: What does the following picture show?

  
  Electrical synapses between excitable cells allow ions to pass directly from one cell to another, and are much faster than chemical synapses.

Question 10: What does the following picture show?

  In pacemaker potentials, the cell spontaneously depolarizes (straight line with upward slope) until it fires an action potential.
  Depiction of the open potassium channel, with the potassium ion shown in purple in the middle, and hydrogen atoms omitted. When the channel is closed, the passage is blocked.
  The giant axons of the European squid (Loligo vulgaris) were crucial for scientists to understand the action potential.
  Figure.1: Cable theory's simplified view of a neuronal fiber. The connected RC circuits correspond to adjacent segments of a passive neurite. The extracellular resistances re (the counterparts of the intracellular resistances ri) are not shown, since they are usually negligibly small; the extracellular medium may be assumed to have the same voltage everywhere.







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