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Absolute zero: Quiz

  
  
  
  

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Question 1: Experimentally, it is found that all spontaneous processes (including ________) result in a decrease in G as they proceed toward equilbrium.
Chemical reactionChemistryNitrogenHydrogen

Question 2: [1] Scientists have achieved temperatures very close to absolute zero, where matter exhibits quantum effects such as ________ and superfluidity.
Iron-based superconductorSuperconductivityNiobiumFlux pumping

Question 3: But, interestingly, the ________ of electrons, where the lattice temperature is zero, is non-zero.
Fermi gasFermi energyHeliumSemiconductor

Question 4: Also, if the lattice was precisely at zero temperature its nuclei would have infinite ________.
Quantum mechanicsMatter waveElectronWave–particle duality

Question 5: Since the relation between changes in ________ (G), the enthalpy (H) and the entropy is
Gibbs free energyStatistical mechanicsThermodynamic potentialInternal energy

Question 6: ________ in his Chemical Philosophy gave ten calculations of this value, and finally adopted −3000 °C as the natural zero of temperature.
Sir George Stokes, 1st BaronetAtomAtomic theoryJohn Dalton

Question 7: In May 2005, The ________ proposed research in space to achieve femtokelvin temperatures.
European Space AgencySpace RaceItalian Space AgencyCNES

Question 8: Moreover, the slopes of the ________ of ΔG and ΔH converge and are equal to zero at T = 0.
IntegralDifferential calculusCalculusDerivative

Question 9: [5] At very low temperatures in the vicinity of absolute zero, matter exhibits many unusual properties including superconductivity, superfluidity, and ________.
Fermionic condensateHeliumPhase transitionBose–Einstein condensate

Question 10: A system at absolute zero would still possess ________ zero-point energy.
Introduction to quantum mechanicsSchrödinger equationWave–particle dualityQuantum mechanics
















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